Biodiversity is the variety of life: the different plants, animals, insectsand micro-organisms, their genes and the ecosystems of which they are a part.
This refers to changes in global climate conditions such as temperature, rainfall and extreme weather events, as a result of human activities and emissions of greenhouse gases which may mask or build on long term cyclical changes in climate.
Carbon credits are the result of actions which capture (sometimes called sequester) or reduce emissions of greenhouse gases: the main gas is carbon dioxide. The carbon captured or saved can be sold to a person or organisation who credits them against the carbon they emit, such as from driving a car or manufacturing items – a carbon credit.
Carbon dioxide, or CO2, is a naturally occurring gas in the earth’s atmosphere. Plants absorb carbon dioxide, use the carbon component to build woody tissue or to create energy, and release oxygen back into the atmosphere. Human activities of burning fossil fuels such as coal and oil have increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere where they form an insulating ‘blanket’, increasing temperatures. Carbon dioxide is known as the major gas contributing to global warming. Other greenhouse gases are expressed in equivalents of carbon dioxide, or CO2-e.
For an individual it is the sum of the carbon expended in using energy, manufactured goods and natural products for everyday living or, for a corporation, the sum of the carbon used in all parts of its business.
The carbon captured or saved is also called a carbon offset because it offsets greenhouse gases produced elsewhere. The amount of carbon dioxide that a person uses in their everyday life is called their carbon footprint, and carbon credits can be used to offset individual carbon footprints.
Carbon credits can be traded (bought and sold) between countries as a mechanism in the Kyoto Protocol, or between corporations in institutional markets such as the Chicago Climate Exchange, or they can be traded in the voluntary carbon market where individuals and organisations can make an immediate difference to their own carbon footprint.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Voluntary activities in which organisations consider and take actions to minimise the adverse impacts of all levels of their business on customers, suppliers, employees, shareholders, communities and other stakeholders and, importantly, the environment and society at large.
The conversion of forest to another land use, or the long-term reduction of the tree canopy cover below the minimum 10% threshold (FAO 2004 Working Paper 83).
Forest Concession Holder
In Indonesia, a corporation licensed by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to harvest timber from a designated area of forest according to government regulations and guidelines for timber removal.
Gases released by human activity that result in heat being trapped in the earth’s atmosphere in a way similar to the function of a greenhouse used to grow plants. Gases, responsible for climate change and global warming, include carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC23), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6).
This term is used by KeeptheHabitat to define an area of forest which is used in one of our projects. The forest area may be a production forest, or a forest reserved for conservation, or a combination of both. It includes harvestable and non-harvestable forest areas together with degraded areas which are to be rehabilitated and which are managed on a whole-of-Habitat basis.
In the wider context habitat refers to the relationship between plants and animals including humans in space and time.
An Indonesian forest classification meaning ‘protected forest’. It is an area of virgin forest that is excluded from commercial harvesting or conversion.
In Indonesia this refers to removal of timber from forest concessions in contravention of the harvesting permits and guidelines established by the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, and includes removal of timber from forest areas protected and reserved for conservation purposes.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: the international body of expert scientists which advises the UNFCCC.
The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was introduced in 1998. The Parties to the Protocol, mainly developed countries, agreed to promote sustainable development and limit their overall emission of greenhouse gases by at least 5% below 1990 emissions levels by the time of the ‘first commitment period’ running from 2008 to 2012.
The Conference of the Parties (CoP) meets in December of each year to examine progress on addressing targets.
The name covers a number of rainforest tree species of the genus Shorea in the family Dipterocarpaceae which comprises more than four hundred species with two-winged fruits that make up rainforests in Borneo and other islands in south-east
PT Empat Delapan Saudara
An Indonesian-based company accredited by KeeptheHabitat Limited to provide in-country logistics and communications support for project implementation, administration, audit and verification activities.
A usually evergreen forest growing in a high rainfall area with a continuous canopy consisting of one or more layers in which trees often support epiphytes, climbing vines and lianes.
REDD stands for Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation. It is a mechanism to reduce the rate of deforestation and its impact on climate change. Clearing forests by cutting and burning emits greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide, which can affect the climate. Actions taken to prevent deforestation will stop these emissions and can be used to offset the effects of other emissions elsewhere. These actions can generate carbon credits.
REDD is planned to operate under the umbrella of the Kyoto Protocol but it is not yet operational and will not be operational for a number of years. KeeptheHabitat’s projects are based on REDD principles, but the difference is that our projects are available now in the voluntary carbon market where we can make a difference right now. These carbon credits will be tradeable in the post-Kyoto regulated market when it is created.
The process of establishing and managing forests on land which was formerly forested or which carries degraded forest cover.
Work carried out to bring a landscape, forest or other habitat back to its former condition before it was degraded.
Economic, environmental and social development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. (UN World Commission Report on Environment and Development 1987 Our Common Future, Oxford University Press Geneva Switzerland.)
Sustainable Forest Management
The stewardship and use of forests and forest lands in a way, and at a rate, that maintains their biodiversity, productivity, regeneration capacity, vitality and their potential to fulfil, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social functions, at local, national, and global levels, and that does not cause damage to other ecosystems. (Ministerial Conference on the Protection of Forests in
Triple Bottom Line
The impacts of corporations’ activities measured against social and environmental criteria as well as more traditional financial or economic criteria. The Triple Bottom Line Plus One includes measurements against criteria of governance.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is an international legal framework adopted in June 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit to address climate change and which gave rise to the Kyoto Protocol.
Natural forest which has not been logged either legally or illegally.
Voluntary Carbon Market
This describes the wide range of market places and projects where individuals and corporations can buy and sell quantities of carbon. In these markets, carbon is purchased to offset the carbon used in consumer items like air travel, car miles and plastic bottles, or to offset household energy use, the carbon footprint of a family, the carbon footprint of a business, or as part of a business’s Corporate Social Responsibility. KeeptheHabitat’s projects operate in the voluntary carbon market place.